Preterm Infant Outcomes after Randomization to Initial Resuscitation with FiO(2) 0.21 or 1.0
Objective: To determine rates of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 2 years corrected age (primary outcome) in children <32 weeks' gestation randomized to initial resuscitation with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) value of 0.21 or 1.0.
Study design: Blinded assessments were conducted at 2-3 years corrected age with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition or the Ages and Stages Questionnaire by intention to treat.
Results: Of the 290 children enrolled, 40 could not be contacted and 10 failed to attend appointments. Among the 240 children for whom outcomes at age 2 years were available, 1 child had a lethal congenital anomaly, 1 child had consent for follow-up withdrawn, and 23 children died. The primary outcome, which was available in 238 (82%) of those randomized, occurred in 47 of the 117 (40%) children assigned to initial FiO2 0.21 and in 38 of the 121 (31%) assigned to initial FiO2 1.0 (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86-2.5; P = .16). No difference in NDI was found in 215 survivors randomized to FiO2 0.21 vs 1.0 (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.70-2.28; P = .11). In post hoc exploratory analyses in the whole cohort, children with a 5-minute blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) <80% were more likely to die or to have NDI (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.07-3.2; P = .03).
Conclusions: Initial resuscitation of infants <32 weeks' gestation with initial FiO2 0.21 had no significant effect on death or NDI compared with initial FiO2 1.0. Further evaluation of optimum initial FiO2, including SpO2 targeting, in a large randomized controlled trial is needed.
Trial registration: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Network Registry ACTRN 12610001059055 and the National Malaysian Research Registry NMRR-07-685-957.