It is possible to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human somatic cells by ectopic expression of defined sets of transcription factors. However, the recommendation that somatic cells should be utilized at early passages for induced reprogramming limits their therapeutic application. Here we report successful reprogramming of human fibroblas ts after more than 20 passages in vitro, to a pluripotent state with four transcription factors: Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. The late passage-derived human iPS cells resemble human embryonic stem cells in morphology, cell surface antigens, pluripotent gene expression profiles, and epigenetic states. Moreover, these iPS cells differentiate into cell types representative of the three germ layers in teratomas in vivo, and directed neuronal differentiation in vitro.