Delayed effects of coffee, tea and sucrose on postprandial glycemia in lean, young, healthy adults
In observational studies, habitual coffee consumption has been linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We hy-pothesized that the mechanism may be related to delayed effects on postprandial glycemia. The aim of this study is to investigate the glycemic and insulinemic effects of consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, sweetened and unsweetened, tea and sucrose, 1 h prior to a high carbohydrate meal. On separate occasions in random order, lean young healthy subjects (n = 8) consumed a potato-based meal 1 hour after consumption of 250 mL of black coffee (COF), black coffee sweetened with 10 g of sucrose (COF+SUC), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), black tea (TEA), 10 g sucrose (SUC) or hot water (CON). Fingerprick blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 2 h and the glucose and insulin responses quantified as area under the curve. Compared to CON, COF caused a 28% increase in postprandial glycemia (p = 0.022). In contrast, COF+SUC decreased glycemia compared with either COF (-38%, p<0.001) or CON (-20%, p = 0.100) but had no effect on insulin responses. DECAF, TEA and SUC had no significant effects on postprandial responses. SUC and DECAF reduced the absolute glucose concentration at the start of the meal (p<0.01). In conclusion, only sweetened coffee significantly reduces postprandial glycemia. This observation may explain the paradoxical findings of observational and clinical studies relating coffee drinking to diabetes risk.