The universal color grid: color research unbiased by verbal labels and prototypical hues
Colour research in marketing, particularly as it relates to branding, is limited by reliance on verbal labels to identify and categorise colours. For example, discussing associations with the colour "green" for branding food products makes little or no sense because numerous relevant associations would depend on the specific shade of green used (i.e., mint, lime, organic, etc.). Cultural differences exacerbate these issues. Kelly green might evoke national pride, religious devotion, a major sporting event, or a political party, depending on which part of the world one is collecting data. The Universal Colour Grid (UCG) is a new method in the preliminary stages of development, which can be used for investigating the relevance of colour associations for branding decisions. The UCG overcomes many of these shortcomings of contemporary approaches to colour research.