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This paper explores human resource management practices in small and medium enterprises Indonesia and South Korea. Despite the fact that these countries have been identified as strong emerging economies and the pivotal role that SMEs play in these countries, a relatively less attention has been paid to investigate HRM practices of SEMs. This study uses existing empirical research and published data to explore HRM practices of SMEs in the two countries. The analysis of HRM practices is made with respect to both cultural values orientations of the two nations and different theories and models of HRM practices. The findings reflect the aspects of universalistic, contingency, resources base, and institutional perspectives of the strategic HRM (SHRM) model. The evidence also indicates the simultaneous adoption of both convergence and divergence theories of international HRM. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed and directions for future research are provided.