The current article starts from the hypothesis that, despite their different intentionalities, political anthropology and Gramsci’s thought converge in the attempt to understand the political subjectivity of the subaltern groups and popular masses. The article then goes on to present the way in which Gramsci confronted the question in order to then discuss, in a chronological perspective, from the origin of the discipline to the present day, the contributions of political anthropology – sometimes under the direct influence of Gramsci – in the light of his considerations regarding the political dimension to the cultural expressions of the subaltern classes and also as regards the dilemmas that anthropology faces between the quest for a “connection of feeling” and the risk of a “populist representation.

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