Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Details

Kaidonis, M. A. & Stoianoff, N. P. (2011). Legislation, citizens' rights and the self-determination of a developing country: A Papua New Guinean case study. In L. Paddock, D. Qun, L. Kotze, D. L. Markell, K. J. Markowitz & D. Zaelke (Eds.), Compliance and enforcement in environmental law : toward more effective implementation (pp. 591-606). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.


[extract] In one international forum, the Conflicts over Natural Resources Solidarity Network, it was noted that the oil, mining and gas sectors offer short-term economic benefits to both the companies and the developing countries in which they operate. It has, however, been suggested that "in the long term the environmental and social costs born by local communities and indigenous peoples outweigh the benefits accrued.