Effects of body waves and soil amplification on seismic earth pressures
To design a retaining wall, conventional Mononobe–Okabe method, which is based on the pseudo-static approach and gives the linear distribution of seismic earth pressures in an approximate way, is used to compute the seismic earth pressures. In this paper, pseudo-dynamic approach is used to compute the seismic earth pressures on a rigid retaining wall by considering the effects of time, phase difference in shear and primary waves and soil amplification along with the horizontal and vertical seismic accelerations and other soil properties. Design value of the seismic active earth pressure coefficient is found to increase with increase in the seismic accelerations, phase difference in body waves and soil amplification, whereas the reverse trend is observed for the passive case. Influence of various soil parameters on seismic passive earth pressure is more significant than that for the active case under harmonic seismic loading. Results are provided in the combined tabular and graphical non-dimensional form for both the seismic active and passive earth pressures. Present results are compared with the available results in literature to validate the proposed non-linearity of seismic earth pressure distribution.