Granular filters in embankment dams: A conceptual Ooerview and experimental investigation
In contrast to empirical design, rigorous analytical modeling and numerical simulations provide useful predictions on time‐dependent changes in filters, and the potential rate of base soil erosion from the dame core under various geo‐hydraulic constraints. Moreover, simulation of filtration phenomenon by numerical schemes provides a good idea of the minimum filter thickness, based on its retention capacity. In this Keynote paper, governing equations are developed considering the principles of mass and momentum conservation combined with appropriate seepage criteria and the equations are solved by finite difference procedure to simulate the time‐dependent changes in filters. The important contribution of various void models and seepage conditions assumed by various researchers are discussed and compared, identifying their scope and limitations within the framework of practical dam engineering. The theoretical developments are verified through large‐scale laboratory testing for both cohesive and non‐cohesive base soils.