Publication Details

Indraratna, B., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. Geng, X. (2012). Performance and prediction of surcharge and vacuum consolidation via prefabricated vertical drains with special reference to highways, railways and ports. In N. Denies H. Noel (Eds.), International Symposium on Ground Improvement (pp. II-145-II-168).


Much of the world’s essential infrastructure is built along congested coastal belts that are composed of highly compressible and weak soils up to significant depths. Soft alluvial and marine clay deposits have very low bearing capacity and excessive settlement characteristics, with obvious design and maintenance implications on tall structures and large commercial buildings, as well as port and transport infrastructure. Stabilising these soft soils before commencing construction is essential for both long term and short term stability. A system of vertical drains combined with vacuum pressure and surcharge preloading has become an attractive ground improvement alternative in terms of both cost and effectiveness. This technique accelerates consolidation by promoting rapid radial flow which decreases the excess pore pressure while increasing the effective stress. Over the past 15 years, the Author and his co-workers have developed numerous experimental, analytical, and numerical approaches that simulate the mechanics of prefabricated vertical drains (PVDs) and vacuum preloading, including twodimensional and three-dimensional analyses, and more comprehensive design methods. These recent techniques have been applied to various real life projects in Australia. The equivalent 2-D plane strain solution is described which includes the effects of smear zone caused by mandrel driven vertical drains. The equivalent (transformed) permeability coefficients are incorporated in finite element codes, employing the modified Cam-clay theory. Numerical analysis is conducted to predict the excess pore pressures, lateral and vertical displacements. Two case histories are discussed and analysed, including Port of Brisbane and Ballina and the predictions are compared with the available field data. These recent advances enable greater accuracy in the prediction of excess pore water pressure, and lateral and vertical displacement of the stabilised ground.

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