Adhesion-induced interactions between micron-sized zirconia or carbon spheres and Melamine-cross-linked polyester surfaces
The thermodynamic work of adhesion between micron-sized zirconia or carbon spheres and polyester-melamine surfaces was determined using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) relationship, after first validating the JKR approach for this system. The calculated works of adhesion for both zirconia and carbon were similar for any given substrate composition and were found to be approximately 35mJ/m2 at low melamine concentrations, close to theoretical predictions. The apparent work of adhesion decreased with increasing melamine concentration, most likely due to the presence of a glassy melamine-rich surface layer, which is not representative of the bulk. The value found for low melamine concentration was assumed to be a true value for cocondensed polyester-melamine, and this was used to estimate surface modulus and the amount of excess melamine in the surface as a function of bulk composition.