Publication Details

Timokhina, I., Pereloma, E., Ringer, S., Zheng, R. Hodgson, P. (2010). Characterization of the bake-hardening behavior of transformation induced plasticity and dual-phase steels using advanced analytical techniques. ISIJ International, 50 (4), 574-582.


The bake-hardening (BH) behavior of TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) and Dual-Phase (DP) steels after intercritical annealing (IA) has been studied using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and three dimensional atom probe tomography. It was found for the DP steel that carbon can segregate to dislocations in the ferrite plastic deformation zones where there is a high dislocation density around the “as-quenched” martensite. The carbon pinning of these dislocations, in turn, increases the yield strength after aging. It was shown that bake-hardening also leads to rearrangement of carbon in the martensite leading to the formation of rod-like low temperature carbides in the DP steel. Segregation of carbon to microtwins in retained austenite of the TRIP steel was also evident. These factors, in combination with the dislocation rearrangement in ferrite through the formation of cells and microbands in the TRIP steel after pre-straining, lead to the different bake-hardening responses of the two steels.

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