In this contribution, the subtle periodic nanostructures in butterfly wings and peacock feathers are applied as natural PhC matrices to in situ embed CdS nanocrystallites (nano-CdS) on the structure surface via a convenient solution process. The resulting nano-CdS/natural PhCs nanocomposites show typical 1D, quasi 1D and 2D PhC structures at the nanoscale, which is inherited from the corresponding natural periodic bio-matrices. Moreover, their reflection properties are investigated and show dependence on PhC type, structure parameter, loading amount, as well as collecting angle. This work suggests that natural periodic bio-structures could be perfect matrices to construct novel nanocomposite PhCs, whose photonic band structures are tunable and thus achieve controllable optical properties. Related ideas could inspire the design and synthesis of future nanocomposite PhCs.