Highly efficient and large-scale synthesis of graphene by electrolytic exfoliation
Highly efficient and large-scale synthesis of graphene from graphite was produced by electrolytic exfoliation using poly(sodium-4-styrenesulfonate) as an effective electrolyte. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy confirmed the existence of monolayer graphene sheets and stacks containing a few graphene sheets. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the as-prepared graphene sheets have low defect content. Based on the measurement of FTIR spectra, the edge-to-face interaction (π–π interaction) between the graphene surface and aromatic rings of poly(sodium-4-styrenesulfonate) could be primarily responsible for producing exfoliation of the graphite electrode to graphene during electrolysis. In contrast to micromechanical exfoliation, electrolytic exfoliation can be scaled up for large-scale and continuous graphene production.