Quarried rock fragments (ballast) constitute one of the most commonly used construction matierals in railway engineering. Ballast is subjected to high stress levels as well as being always exposed to environmental changes. Unsatisfactory performance of railway tracks is often associated with the loss of cross level, track profile and track alignment.
This article was originally published as Indraratna, B, Ionescu, D and Christie, D, Shear Behaviour of Railway Ballast based on Large Scale Triaxial Testing, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 124(5), May 1998, 439-449. Copyright American Socieity of Civil Engineers.