Publication Details

This article was originally published as: Wang, XL, Takayama-Muromachi, E, Li, AH, Cheng, ZX, Keshavarzi, S, Qin, MJ & Dou, SX, Growth, microstructures, and superconductivity of Bi2–xPbxSr2Ca1–yGdyCu2O8 + z single crystals, Journal of Applied Physics, June 2004, 95(11), 6699–6701. Copyright American Institute of Physics. Original journal available here.


Bi2–xPbxSr2Ca1–yGdyCu2O8 + delta (x = 0.34 and y = 0.18, 0.34) crystals were grown by the self-flux method. The crystals have a cleavage thickness of only half unit cell up to two unit cells with Tc only dropping 20 K as y is increased from 0.18 to 0.34 for as-grown crystals. However, Tc increased to almost the same value of about 80 K after annealing in air regardless of the Gd doping levels. The co-doping produced enhanced flux pinning compared to the sole Gd doping. A secondary peak effect presented in crystals with x = 0.34 and y = 0.34 was explained by phase segregations containing Gd-rich clusters.

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