Self-reported health symptoms, cardiovascular risk and fume exposure in welders
Welding is one of the most common sources of occupational exposure to manganese. Despite a number of studies looking at the potential links between manganese toxicity and Parkinsonism, no epidemiological study or clinical pathological study has shown any evidence that manganese causes Parkinson's disease (Pd) or Parkinsonism. There are many clinical conditions which can be mistaken for Pd or indeed encompass the same clinical manifestations. Traditionally, positive diagnosis has only been accepted on autopsy. The risk factors for other conditions that mimic Pd are high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia and smoking. However, it is likely that, 30 years ago, many workers would have been smokers and would not have had hypertension diagnosed or aggressively managed. This study investigated risk exposure and self-reported health symptoms in a cohort of welders to advance research in this area.