Control of nano carbon substitution for enhancing the critical current density in MgB2
The effects on transition critical temperature, lattice parameters, critical current density, and flux pinning of doping MgB2 with carbon nanoparticles, were studied for bulk, wire and tape under a wide range of processing conditions. Under the optimum conditions, magnetic Jc was enhanced by two orders of magnitude at 5 K for a field of 8 T, and by a factor of 33 at 20 K for a field of 5 T for bulk samples, whereas enhancement by a factor of 5.7 was observed in the transport Ic at 12 T and 4.2 K for a wire sample. Samples sintered at high temperature (900 and 1000 ◦C) exhibited excellent Jc, approximately 10 000 A cm−2 in fields up to 8 T at 5 K. This result indicates that flux pinning was enhanced by the carbon substitution for B with increasing sintering temperature. Highly dispersed nanoparticles are believed to enhance the flux pinning directly, in addition to the introduction of pinning centres by carbon substitution. Nano-C is proposed to be one of the most promising dopants besides SiC and CNT for the enhancement of flux pinning for MgB2 in high fields.