Psychometric Evaluation of Multi-Point Bone-Conducted Tactile Stimulation on the Three Bony Landmarks of the Elbow
© 2020 IEEE. Sensory feedback is highly desirable in upper limb prostheses as well as in human robot interaction and other human machine interfaces. Bone conduction as sensory feedback interface is a recently studied approach showing promising properties. A combination of different feedback information is often necessary for prosthetic grasping, thus multiple feedback channels are required for effective sensory feedback. The use of multiple bone conduction stimulation sites simultaneously has not yet been studied. In this paper, the psychometric evaluation of multiple stimulation sites on the physiologically given bony landmarks on the elbow is investigated. The proposed approach is evaluated on human-subject experiments with six able-bodied subjects and one subject with transradial amputation. Vibrotactile transducers are placed on the bony landmarks of the elbow to determine the identification rate of each stimulation point separately as well as the identification rate of the number of active stimulation points for different frequencies. The outcomes show high identification rates for a frequency range from 100 to 750 Hz whilst performance deteriorates to at chance level at higher frequencies. A decreasing performance in identifying the number of active stimulation sites for an increasing number of simultaneous active transducers was observed. The obtained good performance in location identification suggests that information can be encoded via the location of the stimulation.