With an extensive growth in user demand for high throughput, large capacity, and low latency, the ongoing deployment of Fifth-Generation (5G) systems is continuously exposing the inherent limitations of the system, as compared with its original premises. Such limitations are encouraging researchers worldwide to focus on next-generation 6G wireless systems, which are expected to address the constraints. To meet the above demands, future radio network architecture should be effectively designed to utilize its maximum radio spectrum capacity. It must simultaneously utilize various new techniques and technologies, such as Carrier Aggregation (CA), Cognitive Radio (CR), and small cell-based Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet), high-spectrum access (mmWave), and Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (M-MIMO), to achieve the desired results. However, the concurrent operations of these techniques in current 5G cellular networks create several spectrum management issues; thus, a comprehensive overview of these emerging technologies is presented in detail in this study. Then, the problems involved in the concurrent operations of various technologies for the spectrum management of the current 5G network are highlighted. The study aims to provide a detailed review of cooperative communication among all the techniques and potential problems associated with the spectrum management that has been addressed with the possible solutions proposed by the latest researches. Future research challenges are also discussed to highlight the necessary steps that can help achieve the desired objectives for designing 6G wireless networks.