Publication Details

Tufail, A., Price, W. & Hai, F. (2020). A critical review on advanced oxidation processes for the removal of trace organic contaminants: A voyage from individual to integrated processes. Chemosphere, 260


© 2020 Elsevier Ltd Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as photolysis, photocatalysis, ozonation, Fenton process, anodic oxidation, sonolysis, and wet air oxidation, have been investigated extensively for the removal of a wide range of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs). A standalone AOP may not achieve complete removal of a broad group of TrOCs. When combined, AOPs produce more hydroxyl radicals, thus performing better degradation of the TrOCs. A number of studies have reported significant improvement in TrOC degradation efficiency by using a combination of AOPs. This review briefly discusses the individual AOPs and their limitations towards the degradation of TrOCs containing different functional groups. It also classifies integrated AOPs and comprehensively explains their effectiveness for the degradation of a wide range of TrOCs. Integrated AOPs are categorized as UV irradiation based AOPs, ozonation/Fenton process-based AOPs, and electrochemical AOPs. Under appropriate conditions, combined AOPs not only initiate degradation but may also lead to complete mineralization. Various factors can affect the efficiency of integrated processes including water chemistry, the molecular structure of TrCOs, and ions co-occurring in water. For example, the presence of organic ions (e.g., humic acid and fulvic acid) and inorganic ions (e.g., halide, carbonate, and nitrate ions) in water can have a significant impact. In general, these ions either convert to high redox potential radicals upon collision with other reactive species and increase the reaction rates, or may act as radical scavengers and decrease the process efficiency.

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