User Activity Detection and Channel Estimation for Grant-Free Random Access in LEO Satellite-Enabled Internet-of-Things
With recent advances on the dense low-earth orbit (LEO) constellation, LEO satellite network has become one promising solution to providing global coverage for Internet-of-Things (IoT) services. Confronted with the sporadic transmission from randomly activated IoT devices, we consider the random access (RA) mechanism, and propose a grant-free RA (GF-RA) scheme to reduce the access delay to the mobile LEO satellites. A Bernoulli-Rician message passing with expectation maximization (BR-MP-EM) algorithm is proposed for this terrestrial-satellite GF-RA system to address the user activity detection (UAD) and channel estimation (CE) problem. This BR-MP-EM algorithm is divided into two stages. In the inner iterations, the Bernoulli messages and Rician messages are updated for the joint UAD and CE problem. Based on the output of the inner iterations, the expectation maximization (EM) method is employed in the outer iterations to update the hyper-parameters related to the channel impairments. Finally, simulation results show the UAD and CE accuracy of the proposed BR-MP-EM algorithm, as well as the robustness against the channel impairments.