Evolution of crystallographic orientation, precipitation, phase transformation and mechanical properties realized by enhancing deposition current for dual-wire arc additive manufactured Ni-rich NiTi alloy
© 2020 Elsevier B.V. Ni-rich NiTi alloys were deposited using the in-situ alloying wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) method, with varying deposition currents from 80 A to 120 A. The effects of deposition current on the crystal orientation, precipitation, phase transformation and mechanical properties of the WAAM-deposited NiTi alloys were investigated. The results show that increasing the deposition current during the WAAM process would result in noticeable coarsening of B2 grain and an increased volume fraction of high angle grain boundaries (HAGBs). Also, the texture intensity gradually decreased with increasing deposition current. The fabricated components are dominated by the B2 phase with quantities of Ni4Ti3 precipitates in all samples. When increasing the deposition current during the WAAM process, the size of Ni4Ti3 precipitates generally increased and gradually decomposed into a stable Ni3Ti phase which could be detected in the sample produced at 120 A. Furthermore, all of the characteristic phase transformation temperatures increased with the deposition current while the ultimate tensile strength dropped from 927.9 MPa to 613.8 MPa and elongation reduced from 8.7 % to 5.6 %. The cyclic loading-unloading tests revealed that similar trends for the evolution of irreversible strain (εir), recoverable strain (εre), recovery ratio, and elastic energy storage efficiency (η) during cycling were obtained in all samples processed with different deposition currents. The highest εre of 3.2 % and the highest recovery ratio of 53.9 % were obtained in the sample processed with 80 A at an applied stress of 700 MPa for ten cycles. The change of mechanical properties with varying deposition current is due to a combination of factors including precipitation hardening effect, grain refinement effect, and crystal orientation. These results can be useful for optimizing WAAM process parameters to fabricate NiTi components with acceptable structural properties.