Self-responsive nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020. The worldwide demand for green and renewable energy resources as well as the development of electronic devices has greatly boosted the improvement of energy storage systems. As one of the major types of energy storage devices, supercapacitors, with ultrahigh power densities, long-term cycling lives, and rapid charge and discharge capabilities, have been extensively investigated at the current stage, especially for those flexible or wearable electronic devices, which could be integrated into a smart system. In this chapter, the basic structures, the energy storage mechanisms, the categorization, and the characteristics of supercapacitors are comprehensively discussed. This chapter mainly focuses on different major components of flexible supercapacitors, ranging from the flexible electrode structure, the flexible substrates, and the improved electrolyte, to the construction of self-responsive flexible devices. Meanwhile, the emerging flexible integrated systems with these devices have also been illustrated, such as the energy sensor integrated systems and the energy collection-storage-sensing systems. Furthermore, the future trend of flexible supercapacitors based on future demands will be lastly discussed, focusing on the feasible and efficient strategies for designing novel and high-performance supercapacitors in future research.