Effect of scratch direction on densification and crack initiation of optical glass BK7
© 2020 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. It is known from nano-indentation studies that optical glass material undergoes a certain densification deformation during ductile scratching. In this study, nano-scratch experiments were conducted under different scratch directions (face-forward and edge-forward of the same indenter) and normal loads to explore the differences in densification of material in ductile removal mode. Furthermore, inherent differences in densification deformation were utilized to explore the effect of scratch direction on the crack resistance (CR) or ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) of material under brittle removal mode. Based on quantitative evaluation of densification deformation induced by indentation and scratching, a high-temperature annealing procedure was employed to determine the changes of the scratch groove geometry and volume before and after the release of the scratch-induced densification deformation under different scratch directions (edge-forward and face-forward). The geometric parameters of scratch grooves under edge-forward and face-forward directions showed similar changes after annealing. It is found that in ductile removal mode, the densification ratio to the total scratching volume in edge-forward scratching is greater than that in face-forward scratching. It is likely that the greater densification deformation of edge-forward scratching led to stronger crack resistance and smaller tensile residual stress. Therefore, lateral cracks are more likely to initiate and propagate under face-forward scratching under brittle removal mode, which is consistent with the experimental results.