A benchmarking measurement campaign in GNSS-denied/challenged indoor/outdoor and transitional environments
© 2020 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston 2020 Localization in GNSS-denied/challenged indoor/outdoor and transitional environments represents a challenging research problem. This paper reports about a sequence of extensive experiments, conducted at The Ohio State University (OSU) as part of the joint effort of the FIG/IAG WG on Multi-sensor Systems. Their overall aim is to assess the feasibility of achieving GNSS-like performance for ubiquitous positioning in terms of autonomous, global, preferably infrastructure-free positioning of portable platforms at affordable cost efficiency. In the data acquisition campaign, multiple sensor platforms, including vehicles, bicyclists and pedestrians were used whereby cooperative positioning (CP) is the major focus to achieve a joint navigation solution. The GPSVan of The Ohio State University was used as the main reference vehicle and for pedestrians, a specially designed helmet was developed. The employed/tested positioning techniques are based on using sensor data from GNSS, Ultra-wide Band (UWB), Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi), vison-based positioning with cameras and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) as well as inertial sensors. The experimental and initial results include the preliminary data processing, UWB sensor calibration and Wi-Fi indoor positioning with room-level granularity and platform trajectory determination. The results demonstrate that CP techniques are extremely useful for positioning of platforms navigating in swarms or networks. A significant performance improvement in terms of positioning accuracy and reliability is achieved. Using UWB, decimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable under typical conditions, such as normal walls, average complexity buildings, etc. Using Wi-Fi fingerprinting, success rates of approximately 97 % were obtained for correctly detecting the room-level location of the user.