© 2020 Elsevier Ltd This study demonstrates the full scale application of iron dosing in a metropolitan wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the upstream sewer system for multiple benefits. Two different dosing locations, i.e., the WWTP inlet works (Trial-1) and upstream sewer network (Trial-2) were tested in this study. Both dosing trials achieved multiple benefits such as sulfide control, phosphate removal and improved sludge dewaterability. During Trial-1, a sulfide reduction of >90% was achieved at high dosing rates (>19 kgFe ML−1) of ferrous chloride in the inlet works and in Trial-2 the in-sewer ferrous dosing had significant gas phase hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration reduction in the sewer network. The ferrous dosing enhanced the phosphate removal in the bioreactor up to 76% and 53 ± 2% during Trial-1 & 2, respectively. The iron ending up in the anaerobic sludge digester reduced the biogas H2S concentration by up to 36% and 45%, respectively. The dewaterability of the digested sludge was improved, with relative increases of 9.7% and 9.8%, respectively. The presence of primary clarifier showed limited impact on the downstream availability of iron for achieving the afore-mentioned multiple benefits. The iron dosing enhanced the total chemical oxygen demand removal in the primary clarifier reaching up to 49% at the high dose rates during Trial-1 and 42 ± 1% during Trial-2. This study demonstrated that multiple benefits could be achieved independent of the iron dosing location (i.e., at the WWTP inlet or in the network). Further, iron dosing at both locations enhances primary settling, beneficial for bioenergy recovery from wastewater.
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