2019 Elsevier Ltd Free nitrous acid (FNA), the protonated form of nitrite, has historically been an unwanted substance in wastewater systems due to its inhibition on a wide range of microorganisms. However, in recent years, advanced understanding of FNA inhibitory and biocidal effects on microorganisms has led to the development of a series of FNA-based applications that improve wastewater management practices. FNA has been used in sewer systems to control sewer corrosion and odor; in wastewater treatment to achieve carbon and energy efficient nitrogen removal; in sludge management to improve the sludge reduction and energy recovery; in membrane systems to address membrane fouling; and in wastewater algae systems to facilitate algae harvesting. This paper aims to comprehensively and critically review the current status of FNA-based applications in improving wastewater management. The underlying mechanisms of FNA inhibitory and biocidal effects are also reviewed and discussed. Knowledge gaps and current limitations of the FNA-based applications are identified; and perspectives on the development of FNA-based applications are discussed. We conclude that the FNA-based technologies have great potential for enhancing the performance of wastewater systems; however, further development and demonstration at larger scales are still required for their wider applications.
Duan, H., Gao, S., Li, X., Ab Hamid, N., Jiang, G., Zheng, M., Bai, X., Bond, P., Lu, X., Chislett, M., Hu, S., Ye, L. & Yuan, Z. (2020). Improving wastewater management using free nitrous acid (FNA). Water Research, 171