Publication Details

Tanaka, Y., Pahlevani, F., Moon, S., Dippenaar, R. & Sahajwalla, V. (2019). In situ characterisation of MnS precipitation in high carbon steel. Scientific Reports, 9 (1), 10096-1-10096-12.


Manganese sulphide (MnS) is one of the major non-metallic inclusions in steel with huge impact on steel property. In the case of high carbon steel, due to higher sulphur content and its brittleness, controlling MnS formation is one of the main issues. MnS has a complicated precipitation mechanism during solidification in liquid and solid steel and at the interface with oxide inclusions. Higher sulphur content, lower melting point and different oxide inclusions in high carbon steel will cause MnS precipitation at different stages. In this study, different stages of MnS precipitation from liquid and/or solid in high carbon steel and at the interface with oxide inclusion were investigated comprehensively via two different types of High Temperature Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (HTCSLM). Samples were analysed further using SEM-EDS for better understanding the pertaining mechanisms. MnS precipitation on the surface of liquid steel was observed in situ in a HTCSLM by the use of a concentric solidification technique. Additionally, formation of MnS following solidification and at the interfaces of oxide inclusions, was investigated in situ in a HTCSLM, which has a uniform temperature profile across the specimen. These comprehensive descriptions about different stages of MnS precipitation in high carbon steel have been conducted for the first time and provide crucial information for controlling MnS morphology in high carbon steel.

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