Publication Details

Zarifi, M., Guatelli, S., Qi, Y., Bolst, D., Prokopovich, D. & Rosenfeld, A. (2019). Characterization of prompt gamma rays for in-vivo range verification in hadron therapy: A Geant4 simulation study. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1154 (Conference 1), 012030-1-012030-4.


Prompt gamma (PG) rays have been proposed for in-vivo beam range verification during treatment delivery. As a secondary by-product emitted almost instantaneously upon ion-nuclear interaction, PG rays offer real-time tracking of the Bragg peak (BP). However their detection is challenging since they have a broad energy spectrum with interference from neutrons and stray gamma rays. Numerous approaches have been proposed to utilise PG for in-vivo beam range verification. In this work, Geant4 Monte Carlo (MC) simulations have been used to study the spectral, spatial, temporal and angular distribution characteristics of PG emission and detection from hadron radiation fields of varying energy. Proton, 12 C and 4 He beams irradiated homogeneous water phantoms. These studies will provide valuable information for the development of clinically suitable and reliable PG detector systems.



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