Sweating the assets e The role of instrumentation, control and automation in urban water systems
Instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) are currently applied throughout the urban water system at water treatment plants, in water distribution networks, in sewer networks, and at wastewater treatment plants. However, researchers and practitioners specialising in respective urban water sub-systems do not frequently interact, and in most cases to date the application of ICA has been achieved in silo. Here, we review start-of-the-art ICA throughout these sub-systems, and discuss the benefits achieved in terms of performance improvement, cost reduction, and more importantly, the enhanced capacity of the existing infrastructure to cope with increased service demand caused by population growth and continued urbanisation. We emphasise the importance of integrated control within each of the sub-systems, and also across the entire urban water system. System-wide ICA will have increasing importance with the growing complexity of the urban water environment in cities of the future.