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This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Communications of the ACM, 62, 3, 61-67. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3241979
On March 18, 2018, Elaine Herzberg became the first pedestrian in the world to be killed by an autonomous vehicle after being hit by a self-driving Uber SUV in Tempe, AZ, at about 10 p.m. Video released by the local police department showed the self-driving Volvo XC90 did not appear to see Herzberg, as it did not slow down or alter course, even though she was visible in front of the vehicle prior to impact. Subsequently, automotive engineering experts raised questions about Uber's LiDAR technology.12 LiDAR, or "light detection and ranging," uses pulsed laser light to enable a self-driving car to see its surroundings hundreds of feet away.