Publication Details

Biasi, G., Petasecca, M., Guatelli, S., Ebert, M. A., Grogan, G., Hug, B., Lane, J., Perevertaylo, V., Kron, T. & Rosenfeld, A. B. (2018). CyberKnife® fixed cone and Iris™ defined small radiation fields: Assessment with a high-resolution solid-state detector array. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics, 19 (5), 547-557.



The challenges of accurate dosimetry for stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with small unflattened radiation fields have been widely reported in the literature. In this case, suitable dosimeters would have to offer a submillimeter spatial resolution. The CyberKnife® (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is an SRT‐dedicated linear accelerator (linac), which can deliver treatments with submillimeter positional accuracy using circular fields. Beams are delivered with the desired field size using fixed cones, the InCise™ multileaf collimator or a dynamic variable‐aperture Iris™ collimator. The latter, allowing for field sizes to be varied during treatment delivery, has the potential to decrease treatment time, but its reproducibility in terms of output factors (OFs) and dose profiles (DPs) needs to be verified.


A 2D monolithic silicon array detector, the “Octa”, was evaluated for dosimetric quality assurance (QA) for a CyberKnife system. OFs, DPs, percentage depth‐dose (PDD) and tissue maximum ratio (TMR) were investigated, and results were benchmarked against the PTW SRS diode. Cross‐plane, in‐plane and 2 diagonal dose profiles were measured simultaneously with high spatial resolution (0.3 mm). Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with a GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking 4) tool‐kit were added to the study to support the experimental characterization of the detector response.


For fixed cones and the Iris, for all field sizes investigated in the range between 5 and 60 mm diameter, OFs, PDDs, TMRs, and DPs in terms of FWHM measured by the Octa were accurate within 3% when benchmarked against the SRS diode and MC calculations.


The Octa was shown to be an accurate dosimeter for measurements with a 6 MV FFF beam delivered with a CyberKnife system. The detector enabled real‐time dosimetric verification for the variable aperture Iris collimator, yielding OFs and DPs consistent with those obtained with alternative methods.



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