This study examined the occurrence of 49 micropollutants in reclaimed water and Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus) living in a reclaimed water reservoir. The numbers of micropollutants detected in reclaimed water, Silver Perch liver, and Silver Perch flesh were 20, 23, and 19, respectively. Concentrations of all micropollutants in reclaimed water, except benzotriazole, were well below the Australian Guideline for Recycled Water (AGRW) values for potable purposes. The concentration of benzotriazole in reclaimed water was 675 ± 130 ng/L while the AGRW value for this compound was 7 ng/L. Not all micropollutants detected in the water phase were identified in the Silver Perch flesh and liver tissues. Likewise, not all micropollutants detected in the Silver Perch flesh and liver were identified in the reclaimed water. In general, micropollutant concentrations in the liver were higher than in the flesh. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected at a trace level in reclaimed water well below the AGRW guideline value for potable purposes, but showed a high and medium bioconcentration factor in Silver Perch liver and flesh, respectively. In addition, the risk quotient for PFOS was medium and high when considering its concentration in Silver Perch liver and flesh, respectively. Results reported here highlight the need to evaluate multiple parameters for a comprehensive risk assessment. The results also single out PFOS as a notable contaminant of concern for further investigation.
Available for download on Monday, August 31, 2020