Publication Details

Teh, L. H. & Uz, M. E. (2017). Ultimate Tilt-Bearing Capacity of Bolted Connections in Cold-Reduced Steel Sheets. Journal Of Structural Engineering, 143 (4), 04016206-1-04016206-12.


This paper examines the accuracy of design equations specified in the North American, European, and Australasian codes for cold-formed steel structures in determining the ultimate tilt-bearing capacity of single-shear bolted connections without washers in flat steel sheets. It points out that all the code equations do not properly distinguish the tilt-bearing failure mode from the conventional bearing failure mode. While the latter takes place downstream of the bolt, the former takes place upstream. Unlike the conventional bearing capacity, the tilt-bearing capacity is affected by the width of the connected sheet and does not vary linearly with either the sheet thickness or the bolt diameter. Furthermore, it is not affected by material ductility. Based on the test results of 156 specimens composed of G2 and G450 sheet steels having various dimensional configurations, this paper proposes a design equation that is dimensionally consistent and that is considerably more accurate than all the code equations. The proposed equation was also verified against single-shear single-row bolted connections tested by independent researchers which failed in the tilt-bearing mode. The verified thicknesses ranged from 0.92 to 3.0 mm, and the bolt diameters ranged from 6.4 to 16 mm. An additional finding is that the tilt-bearing capacity is not significantly affected by the orientation of the bolt head or nut. A resistance factor of 0.75 is recommended for use with the proposed equation for determining the tilt-bearing capacity of single shear single-row bolted connections in cold-reduced steel sheets.

Grant Number