The use of high-strength steels in the manufacture of energy pipelines, coupled with the transition to larger pipe diameters and greater wall thicknesses, has led to an increased potential for cracking including hydrogen assisted cracking of energy pipelines due to higher constraint induced stresses. In the present study, a modified version of the Welding Institute of Canada (MWIC) restraint test was used to simulate the constraint conditions of full-scale girth welds on energy pipelines, allowing the influence of welding process parameters on crack formation to be assessed. MWIC test samples of X70 grade high-strength low alloy pipeline steel were manually welded using two different welding processes, namely shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and modified short-arc welding (MSAW). Residual strains, and hence stresses, in these samples were analysed quantitatively using neutron diffraction technique. Overall, results indicate that the modified WIC restraint test produces significant residual stresses and so is effective in constraining the root run and in consequence studying the hydrogen assisted cracking of high-strength pipeline steels.
Alipooramirabad, H., Paradowska, A., Ghomashchi, R., Hoye, N. & Reid, M. (2016). Experimental Investigation of Welding Stresses in MWIC Weldability Test. Materials Research Proceedings, 2 557-562.