On nodes placement in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks for coverage and connectivity
Wireless sensor networks can be used to monitor targets continuously. This assumes sensor nodes have energy neutral operation, whereby the energy consumed to monitor targets is less than their harvested energy. In this paper, we consider a new problem: minimum energy harvesting node placement for energy neutral coverage and connectivity (MEHNP-ENCC). We aim to determine the locations to place the minimal number of nodes used for sensing and relaying such that deployed nodes 1) cover all targets, 2) have a path to the sink, and 3) have energy neutral operation. We first model MEHNP-ENCC as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). After that we propose an MILP-based approach called greedy MILP (GMILP), whereby a greedy heuristic is used to generate a collection of locations. We also propose two heuristics: 1) DirectSearch considers locations that cover one or more lines connecting targets to the sink, whilst 2) GreedySearch also considers locations farther afield from the said lines that have a high recharging rate. Simulation results show that DirectSearch requires 20% more sensor nodes than the optimal solution whilst this value is 10% for GreedySearch and GMILP.