A review of microstructure and microtexture of tertiary oxide scale in a hot strip mill
In hot rolling, metal oxides formed on steel surface can generally be classified as primary, secondary and tertiary oxide scales, corresponding to the reheating stages, the roughing stages and the finishing passes of continuous mills, respectively. The tertiary oxide scale grows into the final products on the hot-rolled steel strip during the finishing rolling and the subsequent cooling down to ambient temperature. We provide here a systematic overview of the oxidation mechanism, microstructure and microtexture development of the tertiary oxide scale. Mechanism of oxidation and Fe3O4 precipitation in tertiary oxide has been given as the fundamental theory. Three main sections has been divided in this review. The first section includes experimental investigations on microstructure evolution from the formation of oxide scale during hot rolling, then through continuous cooling, to Fe3O4 precipitation behaviour in storage cooling of hot-coiled strip. By using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) to characterise both the steel substrate and the oxide scale concurrently, the second section has further dealed with the texture-based analysis of oxide scale: phase identification, orientation analysis and coincident site lattice (CSL) boundaries. The third section has provided the general type of crystallographic texture and its evolutions in deformed Fe3O4 and steel substrate. Finally, the upcoming challenges have been addressed in this intriguing and promising research field.