The biological treatment of wastewater: mathematical model
The activated sludge process is one of the major aerobic processes used in the biological treatment of wastewater. A significant drawback of this process is the production of excess sludge, the disposal of which can account for 50-60% of the running costs of a plant. Thus, there is a growing interest in methods that reduce the volume and mass of excess sludge produced as part of biological wastewater treatment processes. In practice a target value is often set for the sludge content inside the bioreactor. If the sludge content is higher than the target value, the process is stopped and the reactor is cleaned. This is undesirable as it increases running costs.