Large-scale torsional actuation occurs in twisted fibers and yarns as a result of volume change induced electrochemically, thermally, photonically, and other means. A quantitative relationship between torsional actuation (stroke and torque) and volume change is here introduced. The analysis is based on experimental investigation of the effects of fiber diameter and inserted twist on the torsional stroke and torque measured when heating and cooling nylon 6 fibers over the temperature range of 26-62 °C. The results show that the torsional stroke depends only on the amount of twist inserted into the fiber and is independent of fiber diameter. The torque generated is larger in fibers with more inserted twist and with larger diameters. These results are successfully modeled using a single-helix approximation of the twisted fiber structure.
Aziz, S., Naficy, S., Foroughi, J., Brown, H. R. & Spinks, G. M. (2016). Controlled and scalable torsional actuation of twisted nylon 6 fiber. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, 54 (13), 1278-1286.