CPFD simulation of circulating fluidized bed risers
This study investigated the applicability of computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) numerical schemes for simulating flows in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) risers. Gas-solid flows were simulated in CFB risers containing Geldart A particles with both low and high solid fluxes as well as in a CFB riser containing Geldart B particles for three flow conditions using CPFD. The results are compared to experimental data and previous two-fluid model (TFM) simulations. The time-averaged axial and radial distributions of the solid concentration show that the bottom-dense, upper-dilute and core-annulus heterogeneous structures were successfully captured by the CPFD calculations, but only qualitatively. The results differ from experimental data for Geldart A particles and high solid fluxes, although they were more accurate than two-fluid simulations with conventional drag models. Two-fluid modeling with the EMMS (energy minimization multi-scale) drag model gave more accurate results than the CPFD simulations. The results indicate that the drag force in the CPFD scheme is still overestimated, although the cumulative method used to compute drag force is more accurate than the proportional method in the two-fluid model. An EMMS drag model which takes into account the intrinsic heterogeneity in the CFB risers is needed for the CPFD scheme. The effect of the realistic particle size distribution was seen in the by CPFD results. 2012 Elsevier B.V.