Pool strategy of a producer coordinated with vehicle-to-grid services to maximize profitability
This paper investigates the impact of coordinating vehicle-To-grid (V2G) services with a producer on the price amounts and the market outcomes. A stochastic intra-hour bilevel model is developed for an electricity pool including the day-Ahead and real-Time markets. The conditional value at risk (CVaR) function takes into account to control high trading risks which are arisen from uncertainties due to high wind penetration and EVs. The problem is formulated from a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) to a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of coordinating V2G services with a strategic producer for the increasing profitability, social welfare and optimizing EV charging profiles.