Publication Details

Goncalves, R., Martins, P., Correia, D. M., Sencadas, V., Vilas, J. L., Leon, L. M., Botelho, G. & Lanceros-Méndez, S. (2015). Development of magnetoelectric CoFe2O4 /poly(vinylidene fluoride) microspheres. RSC Advances: an international journal to further the chemical sciences, 5(45), 35852-35857.


Magnetoelectric microspheres based on piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and magnetostrictive CoFe2O4 (CFO), a novel morphology for polymer-based ME materials, have been developed by an electrospray process. The CFO nanoparticle content in the (3-7 mm diameter) microspheres reaches values up to 27 wt%, despite their concentration in the starting solution reaching values up to 70 wt%. Additionally, the inclusion of magnetostrictive nanoparticles into the polymer spheres has no relevant effect on the piezoelectric b-phase content (z60%), crystallinity (40%) and the onset degradation temperature (460-465 C) of the polymer matrix. The multiferroic microspheres show a maximum piezoelectric response |d33| z 30 pC N1, leading to a magnetoelectric response of D|d33| z 5 pC N1 obtained when a 220 mT DC magnetic field was applied. It is also shown that the interface between CFO nanoparticles and PVDF (from 0 to 55%) has a strong influence on the ME response of the microspheres. The simplicity and the scalability of the processing method suggest a large application potential of this novel magnetoelectric geometry in areas such as tissue engineering, sensors and actuators.



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