Publication Details

Zhang, J., Li, J., Yan, Y., Chen, Z., Yang, S., Zhao, J. & Jiang, Z. (2016). A Comparative study of fluid flow and mass transfer in a trumpet-shaped ladle shroud using large eddy simulation. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, 47 (1), 495-507.


The advantages of trumpet-shaped ladle shrouds (TLS) have been frequently demonstrated over conventional straight-bore ladle shrouds (CLS) with respect to production efficiency and molten steel quality in continuous casting practices. The present study is to shed some lights on why the TLS are better than the CLS design by examining the fluid dynamics and mass transfer using large eddy simulation. The obtained numerical results were validated with particle imaging velocimetry experiments. Flow velocity, deformation, turbulent energy dissipation, and mixing kinetics of tracer were discussed. The results showed that the entering jet of the CLS flowed straight down into the tundish with a relatively high speed (average at 0.710 to 0.815 m/s) and turbulent kinetic energy. However, the trumpet section of a TLS intensified velocity differences, strain rates, and vortices, and promoted an increase on turbulence dissipation rate in the interior of the ladle shroud. The average speed of the entering jet to the tundish was decreased to 0.270 to 0.410 m/s from the 0.708 m/s of the inlet speed. The entering jet from the TLS swung, twisted and well mixed with surrounding fluid in the tundish, and dissipated its kinetic energy. Consequently, the turbulence of the whole flow field as well as the mean skin friction coefficient of tundish wall and the velocity of free liquid surface were reduced. A tracer experiment was carried out to study mass transfer and flow mixing behavior, and the results demonstrated that the use of the TLS increased the plug volume and decreased the dead zone, thereby enhancing inclusion flotation.



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