2D mapping of the MV photon fluence and 3D dose reconstruction in real time for quality assurance during radiotherapy treatment



Publication Details

Alrowaili, Z. A., Lerch, M. L. F., Carolan, M., Fuduli, I., Porumb, C., Petasecca, M., Metcalfe, P. & Rosenfeld, A. B. (2015). 2D mapping of the MV photon fluence and 3D dose reconstruction in real time for quality assurance during radiotherapy treatment. Journal of Instrumentation, 10 (9), 1-14.


the photon irradiation response of a 2D solid state transmission detector array mounted in a linac block tray is used to reconstruct the projected 2D dose map in a homogenous phantom along rays that diverge from the X-ray source and pass through each of the 121 detector elements. A unique diode response-to-dose scaling factor, applied to all detectors, is utilised in the reconstruction to demonstrate that real time QA during radiotherapy treatment is feasible. Purpose: to quantitatively demonstrate reconstruction of the real time radiation dose from the irradiation response of the 11x11 silicon Magic Plate (MP) detector array operated in Transmission Mode (MPTM). Methods and Materials: in transmission mode the MP is positioned in the block tray of a linac so that the central detector of the array lies on the central axis of the radiation beam. This central detector is used to determine the conversion factor from measured irradiation response to reconstructed dose at any point on the central axis within a homogenous solid water phantom. The same unique conversion factor is used for all MP detector elements lying within the irradiation field. Using the two sets of data, the 2D or 3D dose map is able to be reconstructed in the homogenous phantom. The technique we have developed is illustrated here for different depths and irradiation field sizes, (5 x 5 cm2 to 40 x 40 cm2) as well as a highly non uniform irradiation field. Results: we find that the MPTM response is proportional to the projected 2D dose map measured at a specific phantom depth, the "sweet depth". A single factor, for several irradiation field sizes and depths, is derived to reconstruct the dose in the phantom along rays projected from the photon source through each MPTM detector element. We demonstrate that for all field sizes using the above method, the 2D reconstructed and measured doses agree to within ± 2.48% (2 standard deviation) for all in-field MP detector elements. Conclusions: a 2D detector system and method to reconstruct the dose in a homogeneous phantom and in real time has been demonstrated. The success of this work is an exciting development toward real time QA during radiotherapy treatment.

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