Hidden ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption under standard assumptions
We propose two new ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) schemes where the access policy is defined by AND-gate with wildcard. In the first scheme, we present a new technique that uses only one group element to represent an attribute, while the existing ABE schemes of the same type need to use three different group elements to represent an attribute for the three possible values (namely, positive, negative, and wildcard). Our new technique leads to a new CP-ABE scheme with constant ciphertext size, which, however, cannot hide the access policy used for encryption. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new CP-ABE scheme with the property of hidden access policy by extending the technique we used in the construction of our first scheme. In particular, we show a way to bridge ABE based on AND-gate with wildcard with inner product encryption and then use the latter to achieve the goal of hidden access policy. We prove that our second scheme is secure under the standard decisional linear and decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumptions.