Due to their various advantages including excellent corrosion resistance and high strength-toweight ratios, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been widely used as strengthening materials to enhance the performance of existing structures including bridges. In addition, FRP composites have attracted increasing attention for use in the construction of high-performance bridges and other structures. This paper presents a summary of some recent research undertaken atThe HongKong Polytechnic University (PolyU) in both areas. The paper covers the following topics of significant current interest examined in four recent PhD projects under the supervision of the first author: (1) strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with near-surface mounted (NSM) carbon FRP (CFRP) strips; (1) strengthening of steel members with externally-bonded (EB) CFRP plates/sheets; (2) computational models for FRP-confined RC columns; and (4) hybrid FRP-concretesteel double-skin tubular columns (DSTCs) for high-performance bridges/structures. These studies have led to significant advances in understanding and predicting the behaviour of structures whose performance has been augmented through the use of FRP composites.