A coordinated approach to energy exchange between electric vehicle load aggregators and wind generation companies under uncertainty
The use of wind energy sources for supplying electric vehicle (EV) loads is a challenge for electricity market operators due to their inherent uncertainty in the current market architecture. Coordinated energy exchange between EV load aggregators and wind generating companies (WGenCOs) can potentially increase the competitiveness of WGenCOs and EV-load customers in the energy market. This paper proposes a bilateral contract between WGenCO and EV load aggregators with coordinated scheduling in the day-ahead, balancing, and ancillary markets. A stochastic optimal bidding/offering strategy model is developed to mitigate wind energy and EV imbalance threats, and optimize EV charging profiles. Stochastic intra-hour optimization is solved by mixed-integer linear programming (MIP). Case studies are considered for investigation of the payoff analysis, and generation and demand dispatch.