Removal of emerging trace organic chemicals by forward osmosis
This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge on the rejection of emerging trace organic chemicals by forward osmosis (FO) processes, beginning with a brief introduction to the occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in municipal wastewater effluent. Due to the frequent detection of emerging organic chemicals in secondary treated effluent, a multibarrier concept is widely utilized in the design of wastewater reclamation processes to ensure the quality of product water. The chapter outlines three major aspects to delineate how they affect rejection of trace organic chemicals; process parameters include properties of membrane and draw solution and operating conditions, membrane fouling, and FO-based hybrid processes. Potential benefits of the FO-based hybrid systems extend beyond better product water quality and energy and cost savings. The chapter ends with several concluding remarks that strengthen the potential of FO in effectively dealing with emerging trace organic chemicals.