Analysis of the performance of under sleeper pads - a critical review
The transportation networkdirectly affectsthe economic growth of a country and a rail track network is an essential part. As a result of the increasing demand forpassenger and goods transportation, heavier freight networks and high speed rail networksare increasingly been constructed in many countries, including China, the USA, and Australia. Ballasted rail tracks are popular due their high resiliency, higher load bearing capacity, good drainage capacity, and low capital cost, and the use of geosynthetic material to improve their performance even more because under sleeper pads (USP) act as an intermediate elastic layer between the ballast and the sleeper. This paper presents a critical review of studies that primarily focused on evaluatingthe USP used in railway tracks.